By Madie Sturgess
If you walk through Les Anglais today, the greenery is a little more scarce than usual, there are wrecks and ruins between newly rooved homes, and the market is yet to be replenished with its usual wealth of fruits. Hurricane Matthew’s signature remains graffitied across town.
And if you’ve ever walked into La Place (town square), chances are you’ve seen Vlad and his store. Raised in Port-au-Prince, Vladimir, or Vlad as he’s affectionately known, moved to Les Anglais before he finally had the chance to use his certification in technique de refrigeration (refrigeration technique). Saving money from relatives abroad, Vlad finally opened Saint Jacques Shop in 2014. His enterprising mind saw a local need for moto parts, not only saving people a trip into neighboring communes, but also drawing people into Les Anglais. It has since grown to sell food, cosmetics, and other mixed items. Once Enèji Pwòp electrified Les Anglais homes and businesses, Vlad saw the opportunity to grow again. This time he bought a freezer to sell icy cold drinks.
Like so many others, Matthew shattered Vlad’s livelihood. With his roof gone, he lost approximately 75,000 gourdes (approx. $1170) in new inventory, and his family lay home in tatters. Eager to rebuild, Vlad eventually used a small, gasoline generator to run his freezer again. Running for about 16 hours per load, his drinks were never quite cold enough, and the generator, proved costly to fuel. Others resorted to transporting ice from Les Cayes (3 hours away), or running freezers on propane or diesel generators.
As one of the few shops to still offer cool drinks, clientele demand increased faster than he could supply. In May of 2017, Vlad proposed an opportunity with EarthSpark. Our generation system was live, but was waiting for the town to recover before rebuilding our distribution system was possible. Within days of approaching us, Vlad and 2 other local entrepreneurs, became EarthSpark’s first customers since the Hurricane, with their freezers running from our generation site. Vlad’s drinks are icy cold again, his energy bills 40% cheaper, and due to the sheer volume of sales, he’s reduced drink prices.
As EarthSpark continues to rebuild, we remember the scale of change and possibility an electrified town brings. Over the coming weeks technicians and engineers will arrive, and the enthusiasm in Les Anglais is palpable.
Stories like Vlad’s are a reminder that while lights aren’t back on (yet), Les Anglais is not closed for business!
One year ago today, the storm surge from Hurricane Matthew began to pound the shores of Les Anglais, Haiti. Through the night, Matthew would pummel the town – shooting trees, buildings, and debris left to right, then, after an eerily quiet respite as the eye passed, relaunching debris from right to left as the bottom of the storm slowly moved north.
Les Anglais was devastated. Smaller towns and places higher in the mountains even more so. The road had been washed away. Buildings and crops were gone. Almost everyone had lost their homes.
Before the storm, Les Anglais had served as a testing ground for EarthSpark’s novel, nearly 100% solar-powered electricity grid. After the storm hit, electricity was not the priority in Les Anglais; shelter, water purification tabs, food, and health care were all more pressing needs. The electric grid that had served the town had suffered downed power lines and lost about 40% of the solar panels to wind and falling structures. Even had we had the funding to immediately repair the distribution system, repairs would have initially been impossible because, sadly, most clients had lost their homes and businesses and needed to rebuild before electricity could be safely restored.
There's a difference between disaster response and resiliency planning. In our experience, immediately after Matthew, stand-alone solar lanterns and solar home systems were still working, easily deployable, and helpful for the basic needs of lighting and phone charging. The town grid’s solar array was damaged, but it was relatively straightforward to get about half of the array back online. Even without the poles-and-wires distribution system, the solar plus battery storage was able to serve community needs and businesses with higher levels of power directly from the generation site. We are just now starting the process of repairing the distribution system.
This year, the EarthSpark team is watching with heavy hearts as other places get pummeled. We've been spared so far this hurricane season, but our hearts are with those who have been hit by the recent storms. It's awful to see all of the destruction and to know these scenes are going to become more and more common throughout the Caribbean, so it's a good time to work toward real resilience for all of these communities in the face of these climate disasters.
One island over from Haiti, Puerto Rico's power grid is not likely to be restored for many weeks or months. El Puente, a local organization with climate organizing roots is working to get small-scale distributed solar supplies to the families of PR. They’ve established a solar fund and could use your help.
This week in Les Anglais, the EarthSpark team is working with a local Haitian company to take the first step toward rehabilitating our grid’s distribution system, and we plan to have full service re-established soon. Even in our little grid, reconstruction has taken time, but the lesson for us is the more distributed the solar + batteries, the more resilient the system.
Haiti has yet to build energy infrastructure to serve its entire population, and it sounds like Puerto Rico and the other islands recently hit by storms will need to significantly rebuild. In both cases, where there is no incumbent infrastructure there is an opportunity to build new systems that make sense using today's technologies. As climate change drives more intense hurricanes, local, fuel-free infrastructure for critical services can truly empower vulnerable communities.
While community-scale microgrids hold enormous potential to expand energy access across rural Haiti, the process of developing these microgrids is not fully clear and not without risk. The risks can always be overcome, of course, but getting to an investable model for microgrid development is far from clear-cut - or easy!
Legal and Regulatory Risk
Just before former president Michel Martelly left office, he released three decrees related to the electricity sector in Haiti. These decrees have been a cause for debate ever since as they have the potential to completely transform the existing regulatory environment for all aspects of the electricity sector in Haiti. The decrees never fully entered into effect, and, more than a year later, it is unknown if and how these decrees will be implemented. The new president has stated that electricity will be a priority, and there is great potential for President Moïse and his government to unlock microgrid potential for rural Haiti with thoughtful electricity regulation. (More on that here.)
As much as everyone works toward integrated, plug-and-play microgrids, they are not yet the norm. For each grid, it takes several teams worth of effort to locate specialized parts, build custom systems, and employ local electricians to install necessary wiring in customer’s homes. Beyond spinning off SparkMeter, EarthSpark works closely with technology providers to ensure that their products and services will function well in the rugged and remote environment of rural Haiti. It turns out, alas, that there are no "easy parts" to microgrid electrification.
In October of 2016, Hurricane Matthew hit the coast of Haiti. The town of Les Anglais, where EarthSpark’s energy access microgrid is located, was at the center of the storm. It was a 50 year storm 1.5 years into the Les Anglais grid operations. Communication was lost with the Haiti team for a total of three days. After communication was reestablished, the scope of the devastation in the wake of the storm was revealed. 40% of the microgrid’s solar panels were lost in the storm and the distribution system was rendered inoperable. Power electronics and the battery bank managed to survive the storm undamaged. Sadly, much of Les Anglais was destroyed in the hurricane and many lost their homes along with the structure and home wiring required to safely reconnect to grid electricity.
Theft of physical assets and theft of electricity remain risks throughout the lifetime of the infrastructure. 15 cases of electricity theft have occurred since the microgrid launched in 2015. Sadly one of those cases was perpetrated by Enèji Pwòp's own (former) technician. Neither technical nor social approaches can alone solve theft, thus EarthSpark has been using a combination of both community engagement and technology to combat this problem. An energy advisory committee leads community meetings and customer checks, and totalizer meters automatically detect and approximate losses from energy theft, sending alerts in the case of any discrepancies.
Delays in the presidential election cycles caused an ongoing political crisis in Haiti which were not resolved until early 2017. Uncertainty around the national political cycle and outcomes have led to widespread hesitation on the part of international organizations and external funders as well as difficulty in gaining clarity in the regulatory environment. Furthermore, without clarity on the concession process, upholding negotiated concessions can be difficult when new municipal authorities are elected.
“De-risking by Doing”
Though these risks combined may seem overwhelming, microgrids are worth pursuing. All new technologies and new markets face hurdles. With the approach of “de-risking by doing” EarthSpark is methodically pushing through the risks and, seeking all stakeholders' input, working to establish a clear path for widespread microgrid development in Haiti. That is why right now we are pursuing the goal of establishing 3 additional grant-funded microgrids. The next grid is planned to launch in the fishing town of Tiburon, less than an hour’s drive from Les Anglais. The additional two grids will also on Haiti's southern peninsula. With Haiti's new government poised to modernize rural Haiti with thoughtful, microgrid-enabling regulation, these three grids can serve as points of practical collaboration for which the regulation and processes must work. Alongside the work developing the next three grids, our team is also building the plan for the next 20. In the long story of moving microgrids towards market for rural Haiti, we are at an exciting moment of momentum and opportunity.
The community in Les Anglais is slowly starting to rebuild. A recent survey of our customers said about 90% had some housing structure in place – you can read more about that here. One of the most pressing energy needs identified in the survey was phone charging, with over 90% of our customers saying they needed a way to change their phones. Unfortunately, even though we are hard at work planning for reconstruction, we haven’t been able to restore full service yet. However, we do have generation capacity with more than enough power to charge cell phones.
We have started to offer phone charging at the generation site to address community wishes as we get back in the swing of things. Rosane, the Enèji Pwòp Grid Ambassador is managing this. We’re starting slowly at first, just a few hours a day a couple days a week and charging rates in line with the local market and not by the kWh. We may open up charging to other items (laptops, batteries, radios, etc) if there seems to be a need. While what we really want is to be able to restore the same level of service we were providing before, we’re happy we can help out the community in the meantime!
by Wendy Sanassee
It’s been more than 3 months since Hurricane Matthew struck Les Anglais, and the community has started reconstruction by doing whatever possible to get their lives back on track. We thought our supporters would like an update on how the community is faring. The storm severely damaged homes and businesses in Les Anglais. All of Enèji Pwòp’s 450 customers were affected but to differing degrees. To assess the damage to the community and gauge when homes would be rebuilt and ready for connection to the grid, we carried out a door-to-door survey at the end of 2016. We talked to 84% of our customers to assess the level to which they were impacted and gather information on the state of remaining structures, the state of remaining electrical components, and energy access needs in the aftermath of Matthew.
Results indicated that over 85% of customers still had at least part of two rooms and a roof intact in their structure. This was either because their homes had only been partially destroyed by the storm or because they had been able to at least partially reconstruct their structures with scrap metal and donated tarps. Before the storm, most houses were made with concrete blocks and rocks for walls and metal sheets for roofs but the combination of those three materials have shown a low resistance to the category 4 hurricane. Another observation: most pf the affected houses faced the coast and had suffered either from the storm surge or were directly exposed to the wind gusts coming from the sea because of their location. About 12% of our customers were still displaced from their house at the time of the survey. Of those 12%, over 90% have the firm intention of going back to their pre-Matthew housing and about 4% will not. The likelihood of the customers returning to their previous housing appears to be directly related to the house owner’s ability to obtain the financial resources to rebuild.
Rebuilding is an essential prerequisite for customers' reconnection when grid service is restored in Les Anglais. Many people would like to rebuild with concrete to be better prepared for the next big storm, but in reality metal sheets are much more likely to be used because they are more affordable, easily sourced locally and easier to install. Because of this, most customers (72%) plan to re-roof with metal sheets compared to only 14% using concrete as the main reconstruction material.
The survey was also designed to find out how the components and materials used for connection to the grid fared. Given the extent of the storm's damage in the town, the survey results were surprisingly positive. On average, the components’ survival rate was about 69%. The remaining materials were either blown away during the storm or were intact but damaged. The most robust component of the home wiring installation was the breaker box (85.4%) and 67.5% of the SparkMeters were reported to still be in good condition. We are currently carrying out individual testing to find out which meters can still be used.
The population of Les Anglais is “thirsty for electricity”, as they phrase it. Even though phone charging stations exist, they are considered insufficient and have been identified as the greatest power needs, with over 90% of the respondents asking for this service. Ice is another commodity that is wanted but limited in Les Anglais as it requires a freezer and ultimately a generator and diesel to operate. Lighting is also an issue and solar lamps that were distributed by Enèji Pwòp proved to be the main source of lighting to many customers (37%), followed by kerosene lamps (36.1%).
"Electricity is addictive," explained one survey respondent, "Once one has access to it, one struggles without it." The Les Anglais community is struggling to adapt to the temporary absence of grid power by reverting to kerosene and candles for lighting. People are paying third parties for services such as phone charging that, with grid power, they used to have in their own homes. Customers expressed they are anxious to have Enèji Pwòp electricity back in Les Anglais. While they were initially afraid we would leave the community after the storm, these fears were assuaged when they saw the field team at work gathering downed materials and holding community meetings.
adapted from a presentation to the HOMER Energy Microgrid Conference
by Rachel McManus
EarthSpark is a US based non-profit with the mission of eradicating energy poverty. Our method is to do the r&d on business models that can spin off and scale. We’ve already spun off SparkMeter, a smart metering technology company along with Enèji Pwòp, a Haitian social enterprise. And we are now working on a business model for microgrids.
This is Haiti, where we work. Haiti is a beautiful, vibrant Caribbean country that also happens to be the second independent state in the Western hemisphere and the only born of a slave rebellion. The narrative we often hear is of devastating stories about Haiti so we want to start with the positive.
This blog will talk about our experiences during and after Hurricane Matthew but also highlight two main things: first of all that microgrids for energy access are really hard. And secondly that microgrids for energy access are essential to local resilience. Now is a really exciting time for building the models that can scale to solve pieces of very big problems!
This is also Haiti. Only about 30% of the country has access to electricity. And there are several groups working on energy access solutions there and a portfolio of technologies and products will ultimately solve the energy access problem.
Things were going well for the Les Anglais microgrid. Inaugurated in June 2015, the grid served 450 homes and businesses with electricity 24/7. Customers were saving 50-80% over what they were paying before for kerosene lamps, third party phone charging and small diesel generators. We signed a 9-year concession with our next town and had begun the process of community engagement and household mapping.
Of course though, things were not perfect. Haiti has been going through an electoral crisis and we were also dealing with theft, among many other issues (we’ll be writing more about our experience with theft protection soon!). Even to get to the point of having a grid we had to develop our own smart metering technology.
Things got even more difficult when Matthew, a category 4 hurricane made landfall in Les Anglais at the beginning of October. In the days before the storm, we prepared the grid the best we could. We let the community know in advance that we would have to shut down the grid so that they could charge their phones and radios, we placed sandbags at the generation site, shut off the grid and found safe spaces for our staff.
After the storm passed we had 3 days of no communication before we could learn what had happened. When we made contact, the information we received was devastating. Most people in Les Anglais had lost their homes; we even lost the roof of our own house. Approximately 90 people were killed though we are extremely grateful to find out that all of our staff members were safe.
Aside from preparing immediately before the storm hit, we had built a high-quality system. Our solar panel array was rated for a category 4 storm. We had also made sure not to connect houses to the grid that were in precarious locations. One area of town that we didn’t connect to the grid, Bo Lagon, was sadly wiped away before the storm even hit. In the end, the grid fared comparatively well. In terms of our generation system, we lost about 40% of our panels but the power electronics and battery bank were left unscathed. The distribution system, however, will have to be completely redone. As most of our customers lost their homes it will be a while before we can reconnect them.
It would have been wonderful to be able to say today that our microgrid was up and running and more resilient than the unreliable national grid. But when all your customers have lost their houses, it’s not that easy. Our generation system can be up any day now, but we think it will be about 6-9 months before homes are in place and the distribution system is rebuilt to provide power to our customers.
However, all of this also shows why infrastructure is so important. As relief took place, we saw how lack of infrastructure and planning – poor roads and lack of stored food supplies to name a few, made reaching those in need more difficult. To break from the difficulties of systemic poverty, infrastructure is so crucial. We see integrated electrification as part of a bigger picture of 'integrated economic and environmental resilience' that links to other sectors like roads/transportation, communications, and building materials/practices.
We have to admit that solutions even more decentralized than our grid – such as solar lanterns and small generators - met basic needs better after Matthew. Because people need energy services, not just energy access. We need to be building sustainable, long-term infrastructure, including sustainable energy services that can unlock economic potential with higher levels of power so that we aren’t always just meeting basic needs in developing countries.
EarthSpark is working on getting our microgrid powering homes and businesses as and when the community rebuilds. It’s not easy and there is a lot of risk involved, but our work also holds so much potential for not only solving energy access in Haiti but also unlocking deeper economic security and quality of life for the regions we serve.
After three long days of radio silence, we were able to re-establish communication with our team and confirmed that all EarthSpark and Enèji Pwòp team members are safe and accounted for. Most Les Anglais homes and businesses were destroyed or severely damaged. Trees have been reduced to stumps. We don't yet know the full toll of casualties. So far, people are taking the situation in stride, sheltering where they can, and relying on well water.
The EarthSpark microgrid fared comparatively well. We lost ~25% of the solar panels, but the generation system is largely intact. We're now working with multiple stakeholders on a plan to temporarily retool the energy assets to power urgent disaster relief efforts. Most of the homes and businesses connected to the grid were destroyed, so beyond relief work, we will plan in tandem with reconstruction efforts to re-establish the poles-and-wires distribution system of electricity for the town.
Many thanks to everyone who helped directly or expressed concern as we worked to re-establish contact with our team. We stand with the people of Les Anglais and all of Haiti's southwest peninsula as they work to recover and reconstruct.
Here are some more photos from Les Anglais just after the storm.
Donations will help re-establish and expand electricity service in Les Anglais and the hurricane-effected region. Please donate here now.
With generous funding from the US Trade and Development Agency and the Nathan Cummings Foundation, EarthSpark International, Energy and Security Group, and The Haiti Energy Institute recently completed a countrywide market study of the potential for town-sized, solar-powered microgrids across Haiti. The study was conducted for EarthSpark’s Haitian social enterprise spin-off, Enèji Pwòp, S.A. in order to facilitate a fundable plan for microgrid development. Following a desk study of un-electrified Haitian towns, field research was undertaken in 89 rural towns from July-October of 2015.
The study sample targeted towns with no or limited grid access. With the list of towns finalized, the surveys were designed with input from anthropologists, microgrid consultants, and energy policy advisors with a background in the Haitian cultural and energy contexts and focused upon the following research parameters:
· Energy demand / energy expenditures
· Private generation and appliance ownership
· Current political situation
· Strength of community organizations
· Town infrastructure and ease of accessibility (police station, bank, wire transfer services, roads, ports, etc.)
· Economic drivers and market activity
· Key crops
· Geographic distribution of buildings, town size / density
· NGO and Diaspora presence
The field research team consisted of 20 teams of two researchers, hailing mostly from Haiti, Canada, and the US. Thanks to partnerships with three local universities, Université Quisqueya, Université d’Etat d’Haïti, and Enstiti Travay Sosyal ak Syans Sosyal, 30 Masters level Haitian students were recommended by the deans of their respective universities for research positions.
EarthSpark partnered with the Haitian Energy Institute, which was instrumental in managing logistics of the site visits and on-the-ground interviews. The partners ran a weeklong training session, or “microgrid bootcamp,” in Les Anglais, Haiti, home to EarthSpark’s first microgrid. The training included a multi-disciplinary curriculum on electricity, solar generation, survey methodology, and practice interviews.
An in-house geospatial analysis of each of the towns was undertaken to determine the following: estimate of potential connections, building density, and flood risk. GIS tools used for the study were Google EarthEngine API and QGIS. This project also included a desk study of relevant laws, regulations and decrees relevant to micro-grid development and operation in Haiti, outlining opportunities and challenges.
With this information in hand, EarthSpark and Enèji Pwòp are ever closer to reaching the goal of building 80 microgrids across Haiti. A public version of the report is forthcoming.
Beyond Haiti, EarthSpark is now well positioned to leverage its research methodology and survey experience to undertake or facilitate similar market studies in other countries seeking visibility into microgrid development potential.
Here we feature an excerpt from the Rocky Mountain Institute's recent blog "Changing Lives with Solar Microgrids". Read the full article here.
EarthSpark began working in Haiti providing people with small solar home systems and solar lanterns, products that are life-changing tools for people without access to grid electricity. But the organization soon realized that those aren’t the solutions to which everyone aspires. “To truly unlock economic opportunity, people need access to higher levels of electricity than what a solar home system can provide,” Allison Archambault, president of EarthSpark International, told RMI.
“With the right conditions minigrids can provide energy services in a low-cost sweet spot between small levels of energy consumption that can be effectively served by small stand-alone solar systems and traditional grid extension,” according to Eric Wanless, a principal in RMI’s international practice leading the Sustainable Energy for Economic Development initiative. EarthSpark isn’t the only group focusing on microgrids. Husk Power has brought electricity to 200,000 people in the highly unelectrified state of Bihar in India, using rice husks to fuel microgrids; Powerhive, Devergy, and PowerGen are bringing power to East Africa with solar microgrids; and Gham Power is building solar microgrids in rural Nepal.
A microgrid can give residences and businesses enough power to run motors, process agricultural products, and power freezers. Plus, much of the electricity used by rural industry is seasonal, such as an agricultural mill, which is used during harvest season and on market days. “Building an energy system just for that mill would mean an asset that is under-utilized much of the time,” adds Archambault. “But with a microgrid, you can use that capacity for other uses, and everyone buys down the cost for everyone else. We like to say our system is powerful enough to energize industry, and progressive enough to serve every single customer.”
Read the full article on RMI's blog here.